There are 60 varieties of mineral resources, including 46 proven minerals listed in provincial reserves of major minerals, 15 large mineral deposits and 24 medium-sized deposits of iron, vanadium, molybdenum and gold. Zhashui County has 302 million ton reserve of iron ore in Daxigou, ranking first in Shaanxi; 4.68 million ton reserve of vanadium ore in Shanyang and Shangnan counties, ranking first in Shaanxi; 150.7 ton future reserve of gold ore in Zhen’an County, ranking first in Shaanxi; 230000 ton proven reserve and 645400 ton future reserve of molybdenum ore in Shangnan County, ranking second in Shaanxi.
1、Ferrous metal minerals
Iron ore is distributed in all counties (districts) of Shangluo. There are more than 130 mineral deposits and mineral (mineralization) occurrences and proven reserve of 33.557 million ton that accounts for 49.8% of provincial reserve, including 1 large deposit, 1 medium-sized deposit and 6 small deposits mainly in Zhashui and Luonan counties. Single ore mine is Daxigou iron mine in Zhashui, the largest iron mine in Shaanxi; it is a sedimentary siderite with grade of 18～30％, associated components of some copper and pyrite and low content of sulfur and phosphor and reserve of 302.035 million ton; so it is a large iron mine. Mulonggou iron mine in Luonan belongs to skarn magnetite with grade of 30.4% and reserve of 11.407 million ton, belonging to medium-sized mine.
Vanadium ore is mainly distributed in Shanyang, Danfeng and Shangnan, where 8 mineral deposits and occurrences are already detected and a reserve of 224300 ton is proven, coming out top among all cities in Shaanxi. Mineral-containing belt extends more than 100km, with greater ore grade and thickness in Zhongcun and Guofenglou in Shanyang, Shicaogou in Danfeng and Koujiacun in Shangnan; associated components include phosphor, uranium and gallium. Due to stable ore horizon, prospecting potential appears good for comprehensive utilization and development of these resources.
Titanium ore is distributed in Shangnan and Zhashui counties. There are 3 ore fields and a proven reserve of 360000 ton (TiO2), which contains rutile ore and vanadium titano-magnetite, the former referring to Qingshan-Xinmiao rutile ore in Shangnan and the latter to Lijiabian vanadium titano-magnetite in Zhashui.
Manganese ore is distributed in Shangzhou, Luonan, Zhen’an and Shangnan. There are 1 small mineral deposit, about 4 mineral occurrences and a reserve of 129000 tons submitted for general survey, with ore grade being 12.4～39％.
There are 1 mineral deposit and 2 occurrences of chrome iron ore, distributed in ultra-basic rocks in Shangnan and Danfeng. Songshugou chrome ore in Shangnan originates in olivine rock phase belt, where 37 industrial minerals are proven with content of 20%. In Danfeng watershed and Anjiping mineral occurrence, ore grade is 6.4～25％.
2、Non-ferrous metal and noble metal
There are 10 non-ferrous minerals, including copper, lead, zinc, magnesium, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, mercury, antimony and cobalt; their reserves are already proven, with larger proportion taken by molybdenum, antimony, lead, zinc and magnesium ores.
Molybdenum ore is distributed in Luonan and Shangzhou. There are 3 proven mineral deposits, 8 mineral (mineralization) occurrences and a reserve of about 28000 tons, mainly in Shijiawan deposit and Dashigou deposit in Luonan Huanglongpu mining area. In addition, ore body is proven in Xigou, Banchagou, Wengongling and Shangzhou Nantai. Mineral (mineralization) occurrences are distributed in Sigou, Jialu and Baijiecun in Luonan, Muhuguan and Shiqiangou in Shangzhou.
Lead zinc ore is mainly distributed in five counties (districts) other than Danfeng and Shangnan. There are 14 ore fields, a proven lead reserve of 394000 tons and zinc proven reserve of 477000 tons, mainly in Shangzhou Tieluzi, Zhashui Yindongzi, Shanyang Tongmugou, Zhen’an Xitonggou and Luonan Tieyuan. Ores are sulphide ores, with lead grade being 0.88～3.59％, several up to 23％, and lead grade being 0.73～3.59％, several up to 21.76％.
Mercury and antimony ores are distributed in Shangzhou Gaolinggou – Danfeng Caiwa, Shanyang Xipoling – Zhen’an Jinlongshan; the former contains antimony and the latter contains mercury antimony. There are 2 deposits and more than 10 mineral occurrences of antimony ore as well as 2 mercury-antimony ore deposits. Proven reserve of antimony is 57100 tons and that of mercury is 608 tons. The largest antimony ore is Danfeng Caiwa antimony orefield. Shanyang Xipoling mercury-antimony mine mainly contains mercury-antimony ores.
Copper ore is distributed in Danfeng, Shanyang, Zhashui and Shangzhou. There are 51 mineral occurrences and a proven reserve of 168600 tons. Huangtai copper mine contains magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and some lead zinc ore, with proven reserve of 40365 tons. For Mujiazhuang copper mine in Zhashui, reserve by general survey is 36890 tons. Nearly 40 hydrothermal copper mines are distributed in this region, mainly in Shangzhou Liangshuisi and Gumugou, Shanyang Sehegangou, Sanshilipu and Hongtonggou, and Shangnan Guofenglou. Associated copper ore is also distributed in the city, mainly found in metal mines in Shanyang Heigou, silver-lead mine and Daxigou iron mine in Zhashui Yindongzi, applicable to comprehensive utilization.
Gold ore is distributed in all counties (districts), mainly in Luonan and Zhen’an. There are 24 gold mines, including 13 rock gold fields, 9 alluvial gold fields and 2 associated gold fields, with a proven reserve of about 80 tons. Gold grade in mines averages 3-9g/t. Alluvial gold is distributed in Dan River, Qianyou River, Jinqian River and Xun River, with grade of 0.2-0.83g/m3.
Silver ore is distributed in five counties (districts) including Zhashui, Shangzhou and Shanyang. There are 5 ore fields. Reserves are proven in large Zhashui Yindongzi mine that mainly contains silver ores and associated silver field in Luonan Tieyuan, Shangzhou Daochagou, Shanyang Heigou and Zhen’an Yuexi containing lead silver ores. Silver lead ores in Zhashui Yindongzi are mostly metal ores and this is the largest silver mine in Shaanxi, accounting for 97% of proven reserves of Shaanxi. There are 1 ore body of silver, lead and zinc and 8 lead ore bodies, 110-1900m long, 0.89-6m thick, 100-1143m inclined prospecting. Averagely, ore contains 107g/t silver, with paragenetic lead, associated copper, zinc, cobalt and sulfur, applicable to comprehensive recovery.
3、Rare, rare earth and dispersed element ores
Minerals with proven reserve include rhenium, beryllium, selenium, tellurium, indium and cadmium, taking large proportion in the province. Proven reserves of rhenium, indium, beryllium, cadmium and tellurium rank first in Shaanxi. Available reserve of rhenium is 69.1t. Proven reserves of selenium and tellurium are 42.6t and 127.5t respectively. Proven reserve of cadmium is 649t. Beryllium, niobium and tantalum are largely distributed Danfeng and Shangnan.
There are 36 non-metallic minerals, about 210 ore fields, 16 large- and medium proven mineral deposits and 11 small deposits found in the whole city.
Refractory clay and pot clay are mainly distributed in Luonan, Shangzhou and Shanyang. There are 1 mineral deposit and 4 mineral occurrences. In clay mineral deposit at Luonan Duishan, there are 2.65 million tons of proven reserve of refractory clay and 3.19 million tons of proven reserve of pot clay. In addition, pot clay ores are distributed in Shangzhou Gaomiaoling, Luonan Yongfeng and Shanyang Zhongcun.
Dolomite for metallurgy is mostly distributed in Luonan, Shangzhou, Shanyang and Shangnan; there are 4 mineral deposits and 2 mineral occurrences, which are advantageous ores in the city. Proven reserve of Shangzhou Xixia dolomite mine is 31.01 million tons.
Fluorite ore mostly distributed in Luonan, Shangzhou and Zhashui has 5 fields, 2 with a proven reserve of 420000 tons. As the largest ore field in Shaanxi, Yushipo in Shangzhou District has 12 proven ore bodies. Fluorite ore is also distributed in Luonan Liyuan, Zhashui Qinggangcao and Jiujianfang, Shangzhou Dongyuemiao and Shangnan Shiliping.
Silica used in metallurgy is distributed in Shangzhou and Shangnan and has 3 ore fields. It is estimated that the geologic reserve is 43.70 million tons, with quality up to first grade. Phosphor ore distributed in Luonan, Shanyang, Danfeng and Shangnan has 1 mineral deposit, 5 mineral occurrences and 1.407 million tons of proven reserve, and concentrated in Hujiagou phosphor mine in Shanyang.
Barites are distributed in Zhashui, Shanyang and Zhen'an and have 1 mineral deposit, 5 mineral (mineralization) occurrences and 9.862 million tons of proven reserve, concentrated in Daxigou iron mine as paragenetic minerals. In addition, barites are found in Yuyuangou and Wangyan in Shanyang, Donggangou in Zhashui, Dahuayuangou and Huilonggou in Zhen'an, and Miaowanbeigou in Luonan.
Potash feldspar ore is distributed in Luonan, Shangnan and Danfeng, and has 2 mineral deposits and a number of mineral (mineralization) occurrences. Luonan Changling potash feldspar mine is a large-sized mine with proven reserve of 87.001 million tons. Potash feldspar mine at Shangnan Fenghuang Village is pegmatite mine with proven reserve of 50000 tons.
Cement limestone is distributed in 7 counties (districts) of the city and has nearly 10 ore fields and more than 63 million tons of proven reserve. Large mines include Haitangshan and Chujiashan in Zhen'an, Mantoushan in Shanyang and Longtonggou in Zhashui Shiping, with reserve accumulated up to 58.43 million tons. This is one of advantageous mines in this region.
Dolomite used for glass mostly distributed in Luonan. It is Heishan dolomite mine, the only dolomite ore with proven reserve used for glass in Shaanxi; it has a proven reserve of 4, 738 million tons.
Marble slabs are distributed in 7 counties (districts) of the city and have more than 60 fields. There are more than 20 varieties of advantageous minerals so far discovered. Better minerals include white marble in Zhen'an Yuehe, cumquat-yellow marble in Shangnan Xianghe and cloud marble in Shangnan Xinmiao, milk marble in Danfeng Shilidiao, Heishan white marble in Luonan, and horsetail marble in Banmiao Hujiagou, Shanyang. Estimated reserve is above 30 million cubic meters.
Granite slabs are distributed in counties (districts) including Luonan, Danfeng, Shangzhou and Zhashui. Better and large-scale minerals involve tiger skin granite in Danfeng Yongyu, dolerite, anorthosite and diorite in Shangzhou Sanshilipu-Qinwangshan, granodiorite in Zhashui, and dolerite in Luonan Lingkou. Estimated reserve is 26 million cubic meters.
Graphite ores concentrated in Danfeng mostly include graphite mines in Daxigou, Nianziping and Caiwa. Proven reserve is 169000 tons. Graphite is also distributed in Xianghe area, Shangnan.
Garnet ore distributed in Danfeng and Shangnan has 1 mineral deposit and 3 mineral occurrences. Loufanggou Shiliuzi quarry in Shangnan is the only mineral with verified reserve of 3.778 million tons in Shaanxi. The same ore is also distributed in Caiwa, Danfeng County.
Crocidolite ore is concentrated in Shangnan County and has a number of mineral (mineralization) occurrences, including crocidolite mine at Daweiyuan (large) and crocidolite mine at Fengjialing (medium), which are lepidocrocite glaucophane asbestos of good acid- and alkali-resisting property.
In addition, all of sericite quartz rock and sepiolite distributed in Luonan, white mica ore in Danfeng, gypsum mine and vermiculite mine in Shangzhou and crystal mine in Luonan and Shangnan are minerals with prospect of exploitation and utilization.